by D. Finkelhor and Associates (1987) Reproduced here with the author's kind permission.
1. Traumatic sexualization
- Child rewarded for sexual behavior inappropriate to developmental level.
- Offender exchanges attention and affection for sex.
- Sexual parts of child fetishized.
- Offender transmits misconceptions about sexual behavior and sexual morality.
- Conditioning of sexual activity with negative emotions and memories.
- Increased salience of sexual issues.
- Confusion about sexual identity.
- Confusion about sexual norms.
- Confusion of sex with love and caregetting or caregiving.
- Negative associations towards sexual activities and arousal sensations.
- Aversion to sex or intimacy.
- Sexual preoccupations and compulsive sexual behaviors.
- Precocious sexual activity.
- Aggressive sexual behaviors.
- Sexual dysfunctions: flashbacks, difficulty in arousal, orgasm.
- Avoidance of or phobic reactions to sexual intimacy.
- Inappropriate sexualzation of parenting.
- Trust and vulnerability manipulated.
- Violation of expectation that others will provide care and protection.
- Child's wellbeing disregarded.
- Lack of support and protection from parent(s).
- Psychological Impact.
- Grief, depression.
- Extreme dependency.
- Impaired ability to judge trustworthiness of others.
- Mistrust, particularly of men.
- Anger, hostility.
- Vulnerability to subsequent abuse and exploitation.
- Allowing own children to be victimized.
- Discomfort in intimate relationships.
- Marital problems.
- Aggressive behavior.
- Offender blames, denigrates victim.
- Offender and others pressure child for secrecy.
- Child infers attitudes of shame about activities.
- Others blame child for events.
- Victim is stereotyped as "damaged goods".
- Lowered self-esteem.
- Sense of differentness from others.
- Drug or alcohol abuse.
- Criminal involvement.
- Body territory invaded against the child's wishes.
- Vulnerability to invasion continues over time.
- Offender uses force or trickery to involve child.
- Child feels unable to protect self and halt abuse.
- Repeated experience of fear.
- Child is unable to make others believe.
- Anxiety, fear.
- Lowered sense of efficacy.
- Perception of self as victim.
- Need to control identification with the aggressor.
- Somatic complaints: eating and sleeping disorder.
- Running away.
- School problems, truancy.
- Employment problems.
- Vulnerability to subsequent victimization.
- Aggressive behavior, bullying.